The common cold affects children, on average, 6-8 times a year while adults contract 4-6 colds per year.1 Such cold viruses generally maintain their presence throughout all seasons and account for 40% of time lost from jobs and approximately 30% of absenteeism from school.1(1289) Considering absenteeism from school, work, and associated unfavorable symptoms (chills, sniffles, lethargy), exploration of the common cold, and interventions to support the immune system, will be reviewed in the following sections.

Rhinovirus (RV) is a common driver of the majority of colds and is a single-stranded virus responsible for the majority of upper respiratory tract infections.2 Such a virus is particularly problematic amongst individuals with compromised lung function, to include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interestingly, Ganesan et al.2(258) noted that RV has many steps between entry into a host cell and its ultimate replication, which could be inhibited.

Please click on the link below to learn more about COPD:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Ganesan et al.2(258) stated that a virus must first contact a cell receptor, then gain entry via endosomes (i.e., transporters of material), whereby its cellular and biochemical journey begins. During the pathway from the cell surface towards the nucleus/cytoplasm, viruses acidify the endosomal compartment, which is thought to allow escape (aka viral uncoating) of the virus/viral RNA (the recipe to produce more virus) into the cytoplasm of the cell.3 Timing is key so as to avoid lysosomes, which attach to endosomes and gather cell waste/recycle contents.3(2)


Once viral RNA is released into the cytoplasm of the cell, it begins translation; a process of making polyproteins by connecting amino acids together. Such is done to form a shell (aka capsid) and other components to eventually hold, protect, and maintain replicated viral genetic material.2(258) Simultaneously, transcription (copying) of the entire viral genome (catalyzed by viral RNA polymerase) occurs, which migrates into the capsid.2(258) Ultimately, said process produces more viral particles, which are then released from the cell and propagated throughout the host. Essentially, drugs/supplements which capture any of the steps of the viral life cycle could be of benefit.