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APOE4 Gene and Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that emanates within the brain, which over time, dramatically lowers the patient’s quality of life.1 Furthermore, it is predicted that the number of AD patients will double in the next 20 years. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis of AD is paramount before said condition worsens.1(2959) One means of…

Hypogonadism and Prostate Cancer

In this author’s last post, prostate cancer (PC) growth and proliferation was explored as well as its relationship to low vitamin D (measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or 25OHD) levels. In the following sections, this author would like to continue elucidating other conditions and mechanisms behind malignant tumor growth within the prostate, to include hypogonadism; a…

Vitamin D3 and Prostate Cancer

Vitamin D3 (VD) is largely known as a key nutrient in controlling metabolic bone disease. However, VD’s role in immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory capabilities has become increasingly recognized.1Interestingly, many tissues and cells, to include the immune system, contain vitamin D receptors (VDRs), indicating an intimate relationship between said nutrient and cell function.1(49) However, large portions of humans…

Avocado Oil and Health Benefits

Avocado is a fruit known as Persea americana, which contains a large concentration of minerals (phosphorous/magnesium/potassium) and lipids.1 The avocado tree finds its origins in tropical and/or subtropical climates with the largest producing countries including Dominican Republic, Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Indonesia.1(381) Furthermore, the avocado industry is predicted to rise at a compound annual growth…

Anti-inflammatory Diets and Depression

Depression is a condition that affects more that 4.4% of the population, or 322 million individuals, globally.1 Furthermore, associations between chronic inflammation and a range of neurological diseases, to include depression, have been established. Finally, research has elucidated particular dietary approaches and nutrients which modulate inflammatory factors and events, inducing a range of anti-inflammatory properties.1(2045)…

Small Intestinal Fungal Overgrowth (SIFO) and Nutritional Interventions

Small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO) is a condition characterized by an excessive population of fungal microorganisms inhabiting the small intestine (SI).1 SIFO exhibits a broad range of symptoms to include gas, diarrhea (leading to nutrient deficiencies), belching, indigestion, and bloating.1(1) Left unmitigated, such symptoms can negatively effect individuals’ quality of life and health. However, detection…

Special Diets for Special Needs

Food sources in the human diet can include beef, fish, poultry, pork, dairy, nuts, seeds, legumes,  vegetables, fruits, and oils. As such, there is a nearly inexhaustible combination of macronutrients and micronutrients that individuals might choose when consuming food. Such variability is further complicated by lack of generalizability regarding the use of a single dietary…

The Moralization and Condemnation of Obesity

Obesity is increasing both in number and reach across North America, other Westernized countries, Asia, the Near and Middle East, Western Pacific regions, and Sub-Saharan Africa.1 Weight as a topic has become pervasive and viewed in moral terms during public settings, media discussions, and policy discourse.2 However, as such platforms increased discussions regarding obesity/morality, said condition…

Constituents of Effective Emotional Support

Motivational interviewing (MI) insists that the interviewer, and the client’s social network, provide empathy and emotional support during stages of behavioural change.1 However, although social support is viewed as beneficial, the delivery of such support is often ineffective. As such, the following will explore constituents of effective emotional support and solutions to improve the same….

Phenylketonuria and Micronutrient Deficiencies

Phenylketonuria (PKU) emanates from an autosomal recessive deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase; an enzyme responsible for converting phenylalanine to a neurotransmitter precursor known as tyrosine.1 Left untreated, PKU can produce irreversible neurological damage to include developmental challenges.1(47) Thus, rapid interventions upon diagnosis is critical to avoid such pathophysiological outcomes. A standard intervention includes avoidance of proteins rich…

Sleep Quality, Sleep Hygiene, and Health

Research has suggested that genetics, and poor lifestyle choices, can both become an impetus behind chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.1Considering the influence of environmental factors upon genetic expression, which was covered in this author’s previous posts, the following will explore another relevant measure that could help nutritionists and researchers determine another…

Motivational Interviewing

Eating disorders (EDs) can be characterized by extreme under eating and overeating to manage weight, which can manifest into significant problems with both psychosocial (i.e., shame, anxiety) and physical function (i.e., obesity).1 Ultimately, EDs are a resultant behavioral product between the interaction of an individual’s beliefs and feelings.2 As such, nutritionists that manage EDs must…

Vitamin D and Pre-Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome and has become a prominent public health problem, worldwide.1 Within the last decade, research has suggested vitamin D’s (VDs) effects upon physiological processes extend beyond its most notable roles (i.e., calcification of bone/bone density) to include adiposity, lipid metabolism, blood pressure, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance…

Hypogonadism, Testosterone, and Zinc

Zinc (Zn) is a trace mineral and essential cofactor in many enzymatic reactions to include carbonic dehydratase, alkaline phosphatase, and polymerases and is critical for DNA synthesis and cell division.1Deficiencies in Zn can cause several maladies such as increased risk of infections, impaired brain development, infertility, dermatitis, alopecia, impaired smell/taste, and low testosterone.1(1085)2Thus, adequate levels…

Stomach Acidity and Betaine Hydrochloride

Poor stomach acid (high pH), otherwise known as hypochlorhydria, has been responsible for reduced vitamin and mineral absorption, reduced protein digestion, and food allergies.1 Furthermore, low pH (high acidity) is a critical defense mechanism against pathogens consumed from food. High pH can be attributed to several causes including the advanced age, bariatric surgery, and the use…

Weight Loss and Online Social Support Systems

Obesity is an epidemic estimated to effect more than one third (36%) of adults in the United States.1One driver behind such an epidemic is the chronic overconsumption of food. In this author’s last post, cognitive and behavioral recommendations were briefly explored to facilitate liberation from conditioned hypereating (CH) and consumption of ultra-processed food and drinks…

Conditioned Hypereating

Over consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPFDs) continues to be a phenomenon in Westernized countries, and is linked to several conditions to include metabolic syndrome; an aggregate of risk factors (dysregulated glucose metabolism, high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, and abnormal lipid profiles) that lead to cardiovascular disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes (T2D).1 A…

Testosterone, Sugar, and Obesity

Testosterone is an anabolic steroid synthesized from cholesterol, which is metabolized into pregnenolone and then into androstenediol or androstenedione; precursors to testosterone.1 Testosterone is responsible for maintaining function of several systems to include the immune system (lowers inflammation), neurological system (improves cognitive function), musculoskeletal system (maintains muscle mass), and aspects of the circulatory system (improves…

Protein and Satiety

In this author’s last several posts, underlying factors behind obesity and metabolic syndrome were considered to include reductions in physical activity, overconsumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPFDs) and their relationships to addiction. The terms satiety and satiation are widely used to facilitate comprehension and research involving appetite control.1Satiation can be defined as processes and…

Sugar Substitutes, Satiety, and Blood Biomarkers

Hyperpalatable foods and sweetened drinks are heavily overconsumed in industrialized nations, and such manufactured items are thought to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D).1 Reduction in ultra-processed food and drink (UPFD) consumption is critical in the management of said metabolic disorders, and methods that slowly ween individuals off of such foods/drinks is likely…

Exploring Food Addiction

Food addiction was first described as a combination of substance based and behavioral addiction concepts associated with a strong craving or desire to eat a specific food.1 Currently, food addiction can be described as a substance use disorder with symptoms to include progressive use, withdrawal avoidance, failed attempts to cut back, unintended use, missed life…

Food Flavoring and Health Risks

Processed foods use a myriad of techniques to enhance visual appeal, ease of consumption, aroma, texture, temperature, viscosity, and taste.1 in addition to the natural flavors found within foods that are processed, additional chemical flavorings (CFs) are added to enhance the taste and experience of said foods. However, such additional flavorings can carry risk both…

Obesity and Health; An Anthropological Perspective

Obesity is not only a disease, but an epidemic driven by hormones, behavior, genetics, as well as bacteria, physiology, pathogenic pathways, and culture.1 Obesity has continued to extend its grip reaching Asia, the Near and Middle East, Western Pacific regions, and Sub-Saharan Africa.2 Modern day living is considerably different from Homo sapiens 10,000 years ago,…

Whole Food, Low-Carbohydrate Diets; Are They Feasible?

Childhood obesity is considered the greatest public health challenge to date, according to Zinn et al.1 Furthermore, obesity in said age group has increased to more than double over a 30-year period, worldwide, and continues to escalate.1(1) Such unsettling truths have placed children at a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders as adults, behooving nutritionists…

Defining Processed Foods

In Canada, the fifth highest ranking country for obesity, 1 in 4 adults are now obese; a ratio that constitutes 25% of the population, and one that has doubled since 1978.1,2Such an epidemic and condition is also a known risk factor for some cancers, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes.2(331)Thus, considering causes of obesity is…

Exploring Whole Foods

A whole foods paradigm might be thought of as a conscientious distinction and way of eating from that of processed food purchases and consumption. Whole foods can be defined as plant and animal foods that are raised and nourished from their natural environments, while remaining in their original forms, and consumed unaltered.1 Conversely, processed foods…

Exploring Hyperpalatability

Ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPFDs) contains a combination of substances not found in the natural environment.1,2 It has been hypothesized that such foods tend to make consumers overeat, which is likely contributing to obesity and metabolic syndrome.2(518)As a means of appreciating UPFDs, hyperpalatability, and overconsumption of food, the following will explore the same in greater…

Potassium Deficiency: Causes and Methods of Repletion

Potassium (K) is a micronutrient that is a constituent of a larger body of electrolytes which includes sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca).1Such electrolytes work as an aggregate to facilitate movement of nutrients in a cell, pH balance, nerve conduction, and fluid balance.1 Although K deficiencies can emanate from sweating, imbalances with…

Food Biotechnology and Regulating Bodies

Food quality and abundance are potential challenges as the world population continues to escalate. One particular answer to solve such an issue is through food biotechnology (FB) interventions. FB can be defined as the implementation of single microorganisms, enzymes, and microbial groups to modify food.1Such interventions are used to improve rates of production, conserve perishable…

Organic Food and Health

Organic agriculture can be defined as a means of production that promotes agro-ecosystem health, to include biological activity, biological cycles, and biodiversity.1 Promotion of said goals is achieved by implementing off-farm inputs, and mechanical/biological methods instead of synthetic materials.1(704) Furthermore, evidence has suggested that such practices are correlated to improved health. As such, the following…

Food Production and Food-Borne Illnesses

Food production and distribution has evolved dramatically from the early 1900s to present day; decentralized family-owned and operated farms have been slowly replaced and dominated by large-scale industrialized farming systems with corporate vertical integration.1 American meat consumption per capita (to include beef, pork, lamb, fish, chicken, and turkey) is currently 90.5 kg/year placing a large…

Supplement Quality and Regulation

Supplements are defined as products containing one or a combination of vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, and amino acids.1The supplement industry generates significant sums of revenue; Dagerman1(173)noted that in 2009, said industry generated 26.7 billion dollars with 1,000 new supplements entering the consumer market yearly with an excess of 29,000 supplements available for purchase…

Restricted Ankle Joint Dorsiflexion: Interventions

In a previous discussion, I explored the general benefits of warm-ups and their relationships to performance enhancement. Stiff joints and restricted flexibility hinder full expressions of motions, movement patterns, and movement economy. Warm-ups can help circumvent these problems (Fradkin, Zazryn, & Smoliga, 2010). In order to more deeply appreciate the application and interventions of exercises…

Warm-Ups and Performance

A warm-up can be defined as preparatory exercise to improve competition or training performance (Fradkin, Zazryn, & Smoliga, 2010). However, have warm-ups been supported by evidence as being effective? If so, to what degree are they effective, and why are they effective? The following sections will explore the aforementioned questions to gain insight and appreciation…

Conflict Resolution

Conflict can be defined as a strong disagreement between people and groups that results in arguments (Conflict, 2014). Conflicts can be unpleasant, distracting, professionally expensive and emanate from organizational changes, scarcity of resources, prejudices as well as miscommunication (Haraway & Haraway, 2005). Ultimately, all causes are united by their destructive tendencies. Due to the deleterious…

Email Communication

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has become a dominant platform for exchanging information at the workplace. Moreover, information is instantaneous and at the fingertip. No longer is it absolutely required to send letters in a physical form if one does not wish to do so; Email, Skype and FaceTime provide adequate mediums for convenient communication. However, are…

Research and Animal Rights

1946 brought with it, dramatic changes in research and human experimentation (Schuklenk, 2005). As a class, we have covered many vital and important issues regarding human welfare and rights, as they relate to ethical research design. Many of these processes are built upon informed consent. However, an animal cannot participate in such a process, and several…

The Right to Participate

The history of subject abuse within research is well documented prior to 1946 (Pick, Berry, Gilbert, & McCaul, 2013). Since then, stringent measures have been developed and implemented to protect the rights of individuals directly involved in experimentation. However, have participants been excessively shrouded and shielded by these aforementioned measures? Have participants been distanced from…

History of Informed Consent

Ethical guidelines in human research finds its beginnings shortly after the Second World War. A cornerstone of ethical research is informed consent, and a fundamental principle of ethical standards is to treat human participants with respect while protecting individual rights. However, these guidelines did not exist prior to 1946. In the following sections, I would…

Ethics and Research

Schuklenk1 defined ethics, as a means of providing guidance to researchers regarding how they ought to behave and act in a situation in addition to outlining justified reasons for doing so. Paradoxically, there is no universal ethical consensus, only several competing ethical theories. In the following sections, this author would like to compare principle-based ethics, deontological ethics, and…

Improving Standards in the Health and Human Performance Field (Part 2)

In a previous post, I covered steps that could be implemented to improve and protect the professionalism and credibility of the health and human performance (HHP) field. Another point of view should also be considered; what have other entities within the HHP industry employed to achieve similar ideals? The following sections will explore this question,…