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Cannabis and Sleep

Canada has now legalized the sale and use of cannabis. As time passes and proper education and public awareness is provided regarding medical application, some individuals may consider using said plant derivatives to mitigate the effects of insomnia. It is possible that, in conjunction to addressing micronutrient deficiencies and improving sleep hygiene (developing a consistent…

Environmental Pollutants and Detoxification

Sears, Kerr, and Bray (2012) indicated that several elements exist in the environment that provide no known benefit, physiologically. Such elements include arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) (Sears et al., 2012). However, said elements have the capacity to bioaccumulate in the body producing aberrations in multiple regions to include the cardiovascular,…

More On Boron

Boron (B) is a substance once used as a preservative in foods (i.e., 50 years ago) thought to be a beneficial element, but is currently not considered essential to the human diet (Gropper et al., 2018). Although B is not essential, said micronutrient does exert influence over selected physiological processes to include bone development, mediation…

Iodide Function and Sources

Iodide (I) is a non-metal responsible for many roles to include thyroid hormone synthesis; a substance influencing several physiological processes to include stimulation of oxygen consumption, body heat production, nervous system development, and maintenance of basal metabolism (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018; Weng, Liu, Ye, Pan, & Xia, 2014). Thus, adequate consumption I is essential…

Selenium Function and Brazil Nuts

Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient that is a component of larger proteins (i.e., selenoproteins) involved in such processes as redox reactions, antioxidant activity, reproduction, immune function, and thyroid metabolism (Thomason, Chisholm, McLachlan, & Campbell, 2008). Deficiencies in Se have been associated with viral infections, inflammatory disorders, male infertility, altered immune function, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and…

Mitochondria, Zinc, and Copper

Mitochondria are organelles found within cells responsible for energy (ATP) production. Such is achieved via conversion of food (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) through oxidation and enzymatic reactions (Reisner & Reisner, 2017). As such, it is paramount said enzymes are present and in adequate concentrations, which is achieved by appropriate levels of key precursors; zinc (Zn) and…

Zinc Function and Deficiencies

Zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient and essential cofactor/metal in many enzymes to include alkaline phosphatase, carbonic dehydratase, and polymerases and is obligatory for cell division and DNA synthesis (Crook, 2011). Deficiencies in Zn can cause several maladies such as increased risk of infections, infertility, impaired brain development, dermatitis, alopecia, low testosterone, and impaired smell/taste (Crook,…

Potassium Function and Deficiencies

Potassium (K) is a micronutrient, which is a constituent of a larger family of electrolytes to include phosphorus (P), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), and sodium (Na) (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). When in balanced concentrations, electrolytes facilitate nerve conduction, movement of nutrients within a cell, pH balance, and fluid balance (Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, 2018)….

Processed Foods, Cardiovascular Disease, and Sodium

Excessive consumption of processed foods is a dominant trend in North America in which 70% of calories are derived from refined carbohydrates to include alcohol, vegetable oils, and sugar (Ilich, Kelly, Kim, & Spicer, 2014). Such refined sources (i.e., sugar sweetened beverages) have become linked to pathological conditions like cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance/type 2…

Magnesium and Neuromuscular Function

Magnesium (Mg) is a mineral found among a group of electrolytes to include potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), and phosphorus (P) (Maday, 2013). As an aggregate, electrolytes play a central role in balancing fluids, pH, transportation of nutrients and metabolites within the cell, and nerve conduction (Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, 2018). Considering…

Phospholipase Enzyme 2 (PLA2) and Atherosclerosis

Phospholipase enzyme 2 (PLA2) is a group of enzymes found in the plasma. In particular, the primary enzymes behind phospholipid hydrolyzing processes is found amongst a sub-group known as secretory PLA2 (SPLA2) and have been associated with atherosclerosis (Garces et al., 2010). As such, the following will explore said enzymes in greater detail, other biomarkers…

Vitamin K2 Function

Vitamin K, a fat-soluble micronutrient, is found naturally in two forms to include phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2) (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Said vitamin is widely recognized for its role in the synthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA); a residue necessary for blood clotting (Gropper et al., 2018). However, a lesser known function of vitamin…

B6 and Antioxidant Activity

Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is a water-soluble micronutrient functioning as a coenzyme in over 100 enzymes (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). However, its primary role is the metabolism of amino acids in addition to the synthesis of glucose, carnitine, sphingolipids, heme, nucleic acids, and neurotransmitters (Gropper et al., 2018). A lesser known role…

Pyridoxine (B6) Function and Food Sources

Pyridoxine (B6), is a micronutrient which serves as a coenzyme in over 100 enzymes (Grooper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Furthermore, its primary role is found in the metabolism of glucose, carnitine, neurotransmitters, heme, nucleic acids, sphingolipids, and amino acids (Gropper et al., 2018). Considering B6’s integral role as a coenzyme and its involvement in energy/neurotransmitter…

B9 (Folate) Function and Deficiencies

B9, also known as folate, is a water-soluble micronutrient central to health and homeostasis (Sanvisens et al., 2017). Functions include the metabolism of nutrients such as choline, amino acids, pyrimidines, purines, DNA synthesis/repair, and cell division (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). As such, deficiencies in folate can lead to disruptions in said functions. As a…

Low Grade Chronic Inflammation and Disease

Low grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) is a condition characterized by a persistent presence of inflammatory processes, that eventually manifests as tissue damage (Nasef, Mehta, & Ferguson, 2017). LGCI is also implicated with several diseases to include autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes (Kenney, Wilmore, & Costill, 2012; Nasef et al., 2017). Essentially, mitigating the inflammatory…

Coenzyme A (CoA)

Coenzyme A (CoA) is an enzyme considered an essential cofactor for biochemical reactions, to include energy production. As such, CoA has gained attention as a possible means of enhancing health and performance by researchers such as Wall, Stephens, Marimuthu, Contstantin-Teodosiu, Macdonald, and Greenhaff (2012). In the following sections, this author will consider the effects of…

Medications and B7 Deficiency

Biotin, also known as B7, is a water-soluble vitamin contributing biochemically as a coenzyme carrier responsible for nutrient metabolism and energy production (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). B7 also facilitates gene expression via biotinylation of histone proteins (such proteins “wrap” around DNA base pairs) whereby said micronutrient exposes or “unwraps” DNA to facilitate expression of…

Neuromuscular Dysregulation and Micronutrient Deficiencies

The human body communicates, interacts, and coordinates with itself and the external environment through a dense network of electrochemical conduits, colloquially known as the nerves or nervous system (NS) (Kenney, Wilmore, & Costill, 2012). Virtually all tissues, organs, motor, and sensory systems are fully integrated with the NS; like a conductor in an orchestra, the…

Riboflavin (B2) and Probiotics

B2, also known as riboflavin, is a water-soluble vitamin responsible for multiple roles to include management of xenobiotic substances,metabolism of drugs, redox balance, controlling reactivelipid metabolism, and participation in energy metabolism (Pinto & Zempleni, 2016). As such, optimal B2 levels are essential in maintaining health and homeostasis. Although consumption of B2 through foods such as…

Thiamine Status and Popular Diets

Humans have survived in unique and diverse environments, to include equally unique and diverse foods and dietary habits. However, it is also true that particular nutritional proclivities have the potential to induce unfavorable physiological consequences that inhibit optimal health and longevity. In the following sections, I would like to explore vegan/vegetarian diets, strengths, limitations, and…

Niacin Deficiency

Niacin, colloquially known as B3, was discovered via signs and symptoms of its deficiency; a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra was a prominent condition in the United States prior to the discovery of B3(Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). As a means of appreciating niacin and its relationship to pellagra, the following will explore the same,…

Vitamin C and Alzheimer’s Disease

Ascorbic acid (AA) is widely known as an antioxidant and an immune system-enhancing micronutrient. However, AA has other relevant roles to include halting telomere attrition, cell growth, disorganization of chromatin (“packages” and protects DNA in tight bundles), excessive release of inflammatory factors, in addition to prolonging lifespan (Monacelli, Acquarone, Giannotti, Borghi, & Nencioni, 2017). Such…

Food Preparation, Processing, and Vitamin C Bioavailability

It is generally understood that regular intake of phytochemical-dense foods provides anti-oxidants, among other micronutrients, which maintain health and longevity. Vitamin C (VC), a micronutrient known for its anti-oxidant and immune-enhancing properties, can be found in many fruits and vegetables (Leong & Oey, 2012). However, food preparation and processing can compromise the levels ascorbate and…

Glutathione, Selenium, and Reactive Oxygen Species

It is thought that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in many disease states to include arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease (Duthie, 2003; Stockler-Pintos, Mafra, Farage, Boaventura, & Cozzolino, 2010). As such, maintaining optimal levels of anti-oxidants are critical in managing the destructive nature of ROS. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) is an example…

Antioxidants

Antioxidants are substrates, which serve to protect a cell’s DNA, lipid membranes, and proteins from reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Duthie, 2003). As such, optimal levels of antioxidants are paramount in maintaining an organism’s health, performance, and longevity. Furthermore, ensuring that said substrate is adequately recycled for continued use is equal relevance (Gropper, Smith, & Carr,…

CoQ10, Genetic Mutations, and Statins

CoQ10 is a nutrient whose production tends to become down-regulated by two main sources: genetic mutations involved in its synthesis (a primary deficiency) and statins, which inhibit an enzyme (hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A) involved in the development of CoQ10 (considered a secondary deficiency) (Potgieter, Pretorius, & Pepper, 2013). Secondary deficiency is a common side-affect amongst individuals on…

Exercise and “Hitting the Wall”

Movement is the product of many systems working together in a highly coordinated and harmonious fashion. Such systems include the sensorimotor, musculoskeletal, and energy systems (Page, Lardner, & Frank, 2010). When functioning optimally, the coalescence of such systems can produce meaningful and effective motions, such as running. Over time, however, fatigue is expressed as a…

Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D3

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease characterized by inflammatory, demyelinating, and autoimmune events affecting more than 2 million people worldwide (Reich, Lucchinetti, & Calabresi, 2018).Brum, Comini-Frota, Vasconcelos, and Dias-Tosta (2014) stated that although the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been clearly uncovered, there does exist environmental and genetic factors thought to manifest the…

Determining Optimal Vitamin D3 Levels

Optimal vitamin D levels, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D, remains to be somewhat equivocal, thereby affecting recommended oral doses of vitamin D3. Since research indicates the critical relationship of vitamin D to optimal health, it behooves one to consider the nuances and implications of recommending supplemental vitamin D to individuals. The following will explore the…

Vitamin D3 Production

Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, is the precursor/pre-vitamin to 1,25-(OH)2D; the active form within the body, known as calcitriol (Chaplin & Jablonski, 2013). Vitamin D3 can be derived from sun exposure as well as foods such as fatty fish (i.e., salmon and sardines), plants (i.e., shitake mushrooms), fortified foods (i.e., milk, yogurt, butter, cheese)…

Dynamic Pattern Theory and Post-Rehabilitation

Post-rehabilitation (PR) clients require diligent and scrupulous program design. Extensive weakness and deconditioning are common traits among the aforementioned populace. PR clients are often seeing a medical professional, or have been recently discharged. Their injuries are usually resolved, but they are often not ready for the rigors of daily activity or work related tasks. Thus,…

Vitamin A Deficiency

In less developed countries, vitamin A deficiency (in conjunction to protein, iron, and iodine deficiency) are the leading causes of child deaths worldwide (Vijayaraghavan, 2000). Early signs of said deficiency can express itself as xerophthalmia (dryness of eyes), nyctalopia (night blindness), and dry skin (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Although such signs can prompt one…

Crohn’s Disease and Vitamin A

CD is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation, followed by periodic intervals of remission (Soares-Mota et al., 2015). Part of controlling said inflammation is through lowering the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along the gastrointestinal tract. Such a process is known to reduce tissue damage associated with CD. Furthermore, as part of a complex of…

Vitamin E and Oxidation

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble compound along with A, D, and K. Said vitamin is most widely recognized by its anti-oxidant capabilities and capacity to maintain and protect cell membranes and lipoproteins (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). As a means of appreciating vitamin E’s role as an anti-oxidant, the following will briefly consider its structure,…

Vitamin D3 and Inflammation

Vitamin D3 has been widely recognized as a key player in controlling metabolic bone disease. Less known to the public is said vitamin’s role in anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating capabilities (Raman, Milestone, Walters, Hart, & Ghosh, 2011). Interestingly, many tissues and cells, to include the immune system, contain vitamin D receptors (VDRs), indicating a need for its…

Antacids and Gut Function

McRorie (2018) stated that antacids can provide an expeditious increase in stomach pH. However, such a change comes at a consequence; the reduction of stomach acidity stimulates a rapid increase in the same (McRorie, 2018). Ultimately, the intervention that causes the relief is also the impetus behind further gastric acid production, leading the individual into…

Immune Function and Gut Microbiota

The digestive tract is an estimated 16-foot long system, which includes the upper digestive tract (oral cavity, esophagus, stomach) in addition to the lower digestive tract (small and large intestine) and accessory organs (pancreas, liver, gallbladder) (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Residing within the lower digestive tract is a complex system of bacteria, fungi, viruses,…

Tracking Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by compromised bone strength and elevated bone turnover, which increases an individual’s risk of fracture (Srivastava et al., 2005). Almost 44 million Americans are estimated to have low bone mass which, in 2001, had a direct national expenditure of 17 billion dollars (Srivastava et al., 2005). As such, methods of…

Hemochromatosis, Supplementation, and a Tale of Caution

Micronutrient supplementation falls within an industry that generates substantial sums of revenue; Dagerman (2012) noted that in 2009, the aforementioned industry generated 26.7 billion dollars with 1,000 new supplements entering the consumer market yearly, and more than 29,000 supplements available for purchase in total. With such an array of choices, and a lack of quality…

Kinesiology Employment Opportunity

    Kinesiology Employment Opportunity (Part-Time)   Seeking a Kinesiology graduate to work in a dynamic, challenging, and rewarding environment with McIsaac Health Systems Inc (MHS). MHS is a company specializing in post-rehabilitation, personal training, and nutritional coaching. See McIsaacHealthSystems.com  for more details about our philosophy, services, and opportunities. You will be provided with abundant…

Measuring Folic Acid

Organic acid testing can help detect and facilitate stalled healing and general health problems. Furthermore, such tests help determine if vitamins are functioning adequately within the body (Rogers, 2006). Folic acid, a synthetic version of folate, can be monitored for its effectiveness by an organic acid known as formiminoglutamate (FIGLU). The following will explore the…

Folic Acid

Folic acid (also known as B9), is a water-soluble synthetic vitamin; a counterpart of the naturally occurring form (known as folate) found in leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, meat, and poultry (Lee & Chan, 2011; Tomita, 2016). Such a vitamin is key for the normal functioning of red blood cells (RBCs), the adequate synthesis of…