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Digestive

Organic Acid Markers and Intestinal Health

Gut dysbiosis is a condition characterized by a disruption in the ratio and number of microorganisms (known as the microbiome) in the small and large intestine to include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungus (Huang, Gao, Yu, Zhu, Ding, & Qin, 2019). Such aberrations in gut function are linked to altered nutrient digestion/absorption, reduced immune/barrier function,…

Immune Function and Gut Microbiota

The digestive tract is an estimated 16-foot long system, which includes the upper digestive tract (oral cavity, esophagus, stomach) in addition to the lower digestive tract (small and large intestine) and accessory organs (pancreas, liver, gallbladder) (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Residing within the lower digestive tract is a complex system of bacteria, fungi, viruses,…

H. Pylori Bacteria and Nutrient Malabsorbtion

Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a gram-negative bacteria that has a global reach, infecting more than half of the world’s population (Franceschi et al., 2014). It is etiologically associated with atrophic gastritis (loss of gastric cells from inflammation), non-atrophic gastritis (inflammation with no loss of gastric cells), peptic ulcers, and shows a strong association with primary…

Gastrointestinal Function and Health

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered the most exposed organ to the outside world, coming into contact with thousands of organisms and substances from the ingestion of food each day (Lopetuso, Scaldaferri, Bruno, Petito, Franceschi, & Gasbarrini, 2015). It also provides a complex barrier from the outside world to the delicate internal systems of the…