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Cardiovascular / Circulatory

Rheumatoid Arthritis, Co-Morbidities and Exercise

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized as a multisystem inflammatory condition, which affects 1% of the population.1 The condition is further complicated by co-morbid diseases which includes cognitive dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, fatigue, and depression.1(1)2 As an aggregate, such illnesses can systematically diminish an individual’s health and quality of life. Thus, it is imperative to consider interventions,…

Overweight, Biomarkers, and Nutritional Interventions

Sedentary behavior and a general overconsumption of calories, especially from processed foods, are primary drivers for overweight/obesity.1,2 Such changes can be identified and tracked by implementing a measure known as body mass index (BMI); a metric relating weight (kilograms) divided by height (metres2) to normative values.3 Other biomarkers that provide meaningful insight into an individual’s…

Walking, Diabetes, and Hemoglobin A1C

Diabetes mellitus is both a progressive and chronic disease in which there exists an inability to effectively and efficiently metabolize fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Ultimately, such a condition leads to hyperglycemia, or elevated blood glucose levels, and eventually type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several posts have been written by this author regarding sleep/nutritional/supplemental interventions and their…

Warm-Ups and Performance

A warm-up can be defined as preparatory exercise to improve competition or training performance (Fradkin, Zazryn, & Smoliga, 2010). However, have warm-ups been supported by evidence as being effective? If so, to what degree are they effective, and why are they effective? The following sections will explore the aforementioned questions to gain insight and appreciation…

Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a term that identifies an aggregate of physiological abnormalities which increases the risk of liver disease, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (Agyemang-Yeboah, Eghan, Annani-Akollor, Togbe, Donkor, & Afranie, 2019). Physiological abnormalities that constitute MS include dysregulated glucose metabolism, high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, and abnormal lipid profiles (Agyemang-Yeboah et…

Coenzyme A (CoA)

Coenzyme A (CoA) is an enzyme considered an essential cofactor for biochemical reactions, to include energy production. As such, CoA has gained attention as a possible means of enhancing health and performance by researchers such as Wall, Stephens, Marimuthu, Contstantin-Teodosiu, Macdonald, and Greenhaff (2012). In the following sections, this author will consider the effects of…

Neuromuscular Dysregulation and Micronutrient Deficiencies

The human body communicates, interacts, and coordinates with itself and the external environment through a dense network of electrochemical conduits, colloquially known as the nerves or nervous system (NS) (Kenney, Wilmore, & Costill, 2012). Virtually all tissues, organs, motor, and sensory systems are fully integrated with the NS; like a conductor in an orchestra, the…

Mitochondria and Cardiac Muscle

The heart is a muscle (cardiac muscle) critical to sustaining life and homeostasis. Such an organ serves as a pump, which propels blood towards the lungs and other tissues via associated vasculature (Reisner & Reisner, 2017). Cardiac muscle is designed to work in almost near perpetuity; other muscles (i.e., skeletal) are not always required to…

Low-Density Lipoproteins and Cardiovascular Risk

Atherosclerosis can be defined as the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls (plaque), which can restrict blood flow (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Said condition can manifest as early as childhood with the development and deposition of fatty cholesterol streaks along the endothelium (blood vessel wall) (Lee & Nieman, 2013)….

Measuring Body Composition

Body composition (BC) can be defined as the proportions of various tissues (i.e., fat, muscle, and bone) making up the body, which is generally expressed as percent body fat and percent lean body mass (Lee & Nieman, 2013). As such, knowing BC can help one track changes during weight loss or weight gain programs, in…