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Skeletal

The Elderly, Surgery, and Nutrition

Optimizing nutrition can help support the recovery of traumatized bone and soft tissue. Such a decision is particularly relevant for older individuals who have sustained fractures or hip replacements; events which create significant tissue damage. In the following sections, this author would like to provide nutritional recommendations, from whole food and supplemental sources, which can…

Osteoarthritis and Nutritional Support

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a condition characterized by incremental joint pain and compromised joint function; an arthritic state, which generally affects individuals over the age of 50 years.1 Left untreated, OA can progress into a severe condition and slowly diminish an individual’s productivity and quality of life.1(1) As a means of appreciating OA, the following will…

Osteoporosis, Biomarkers, and Nutrition

Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by elevated bone turnover and compromised bone strength, which increases an individual’s risk of fracture.1 Furthermore, 44 million Americans are estimated to have low bone mass which, in 2001, had a direct national expenditure of 17 billion dollars.1(1015) Ultimately, early monitoring and tracking of bone mineral density (BMD), and other…

Potassium Deficiency: Causes and Methods of Repletion

Potassium (K) is a micronutrient that is a constituent of a larger body of electrolytes which includes sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca).1Such electrolytes work as an aggregate to facilitate movement of nutrients in a cell, pH balance, nerve conduction, and fluid balance.1 Although K deficiencies can emanate from sweating, imbalances with…

Detecting and Managing Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is characterized by an overpopulation (in excess of 105– 106) of bacteria in the small intestine and stomach (Khalighi et al., 2014; Nabanan & Fauzi, 2015). Several urinary organic acid biomarkers are available which help determine the presence and overpopulation of such bacterial species. Such knowledge is critical as it…

More On Boron

Boron (B) is a substance once used as a preservative in foods (i.e., 50 years ago) thought to be a beneficial element, but is currently not considered essential to the human diet (Gropper et al., 2018). Although B is not essential, said micronutrient does exert influence over selected physiological processes to include bone development, mediation…

Vitamin K2 Function

Vitamin K, a fat-soluble micronutrient, is found naturally in two forms to include phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2) (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Said vitamin is widely recognized for its role in the synthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA); a residue necessary for blood clotting (Gropper et al., 2018). However, a lesser known function of vitamin…

Determining Optimal Vitamin D3 Levels

Optimal vitamin D levels, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D, remains to be somewhat equivocal, thereby affecting recommended oral doses of vitamin D3. Since research indicates the critical relationship of vitamin D to optimal health, it behooves one to consider the nuances and implications of recommending supplemental vitamin D to individuals. The following will explore the…

Vitamin A Deficiency

In less developed countries, vitamin A deficiency (in conjunction to protein, iron, and iodine deficiency) are the leading causes of child deaths worldwide (Vijayaraghavan, 2000). Early signs of said deficiency can express itself as xerophthalmia (dryness of eyes), nyctalopia (night blindness), and dry skin (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Although such signs can prompt one…

Tracking Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by compromised bone strength and elevated bone turnover, which increases an individual’s risk of fracture (Srivastava et al., 2005). Almost 44 million Americans are estimated to have low bone mass which, in 2001, had a direct national expenditure of 17 billion dollars (Srivastava et al., 2005). As such, methods of…