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Urinary

Kidney Stones, Biomarkers, and Nutritional Interventions

Kidney stones affect up to 5% of the population while its prevalence is associated with improved standards of living.1 Furthermore, kidney stone disease (KSD) is increasing in women across the age spectrum beginning as early as childhood.2 KSD also has associated risk factors to include obesity, gastrointestinal pathology, insulin resistance, warmer climates, use of medications,…

Carbohydrate Type, Fiber Consumption, and Elderly Diabetics

Laskir et al1 stated that malnutrition is a prevalent condition amongst elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in hospital and geriatric care settings. As such, nutritional management is critical especially in the presence of acute disease, severe co-morbidities, and functional status; all of which are likely amongst geriatrics with T2D.1(2084) Therefore, developing nutritional protocols…

Potassium Deficiency: Causes and Methods of Repletion

Potassium (K) is a micronutrient that is a constituent of a larger body of electrolytes which includes sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca).1Such electrolytes work as an aggregate to facilitate movement of nutrients in a cell, pH balance, nerve conduction, and fluid balance.1 Although K deficiencies can emanate from sweating, imbalances with…

Antioxidants and Tracking Oxidative Stress

Free radicals (FRs) are generated during normal metabolic processes in addition to exposure to pathophysiological states.1 Such species are unstable and induce unfavorable cellular changes, if left unchecked, to include DNA damage; a destructive process associated with the genesis of cancer.1(317) Antioxidants are substances that can control the effects and propagation of FRs thereby down-regulating…

Potassium Function and Deficiencies

Potassium (K) is a micronutrient, which is a constituent of a larger family of electrolytes to include phosphorus (P), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), and sodium (Na) (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). When in balanced concentrations, electrolytes facilitate nerve conduction, movement of nutrients within a cell, pH balance, and fluid balance (Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, 2018)….

Vitamin D: Types, Utility, Screening, and Optimal Dosing

Vitamin D is a micronutrient that has been associated with significantly reducing all-cause mortality, and has been implicated in many diseases of modern civilization (Cannell, 2008). Furthermore, and most relevantly, vitamin D interacts with more that 200 genes and multiple organs, indicating its broad reach and influence upon human physiology (Cannell & Hollis, 2008; Wang,…

Urinalysis of Glucose and Ketones

Urinalysis of glucose and ketones are non-invasive tests, which are used to reflect the levels of said molecules in the blood. Such tests are often used to monitor the effectiveness of interventions (i.e., nutrition, medication, lifestyle) for diabetics and individuals with insulin resistance (Pagna & Pagna, 2014). As a means of appreciating the need and…

Vitamin D and Hidden Hunger

In my last post, I covered a brief history of Scotland and how they circumvented vitamin D deficiencies. The intent of providing a brief history of the Scots and vitamin D intake was to show the complex interplay of environment, physiology, cultural proclivities, and economics on the effects of health. It was also my intent…