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Immune / Lymphatic

Organic Acid Markers and Intestinal Health

Gut dysbiosis is a condition characterized by a disruption in the ratio and number of microorganisms (known as the microbiome) in the small and large intestine to include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungus (Huang, Gao, Yu, Zhu, Ding, & Qin, 2019). Such aberrations in gut function are linked to altered nutrient digestion/absorption, reduced immune/barrier function,…

B6 and Antioxidant Activity

Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is a water-soluble micronutrient functioning as a coenzyme in over 100 enzymes (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). However, its primary role is the metabolism of amino acids in addition to the synthesis of glucose, carnitine, sphingolipids, heme, nucleic acids, and neurotransmitters (Gropper et al., 2018). A lesser known role…

Mitochondria and Cardiac Muscle

The heart is a muscle (cardiac muscle) critical to sustaining life and homeostasis. Such an organ serves as a pump, which propels blood towards the lungs and other tissues via associated vasculature (Reisner & Reisner, 2017). Cardiac muscle is designed to work in almost near perpetuity; other muscles (i.e., skeletal) are not always required to…

Tendinopathy: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatment

Tendinopathy is characterized as an overuse injury, occurring in close proximity to the tendinous regions of muscle bellies (Andres & Murrell, 2008). Unlike tendonitis, which is characterized by inflammatory markers, tendinopathy has minimal-to-no inflammation present (Andres & Murrell, 2008; Mayo Clinic, 2016). Thus, it is imperative to discern the two pathologies and appropriately characterize the…

Exercise, Estrogen, and Breast Cancer

Several factors (genetic, lifestyle, and environmental) have been linked with estrogen production; a hormone closely related to the growth and development of breast cancer. (Pizzorno & Katzinger, 2012). Thus, modulating such factors might help in controlling breast cancer proliferation (as part of a complete treatment). As a means of appreciating elements, which influence breast cancer…

Exercise-Induced Inflammation VS. Food-Induced Inflammation

In my last post, characteristics of exercise-induced inflammation (EII) were explored. Topics included how brief and moderately intense exercise initiated an immune response, as well as the central physiological and biochemical processes required to achieve adaptation to the same stimuli of equal magnitude. In the following sections, food-induced inflammation (FII) will be reviewed, as well…

Inflammation; Defining Its Time and Place

Inflammation is a natural immune response to neutralize and clear foreign bodies and damaged cells in a biological organism (Ilich, Kelly, Kim, & Spicer, 2014). The immune response can have several etiologies such as overconsumption of omega-6 rich foods, food sensitivities, poor sleep, stress, toxic environments, and intense physical activity (Ruiz-Nunez, Pruimboom, Dijck-Brouwer, & Muskiet,…

Omega-3 Supplementation, Resistance Training, and Recovery

Inflammation is a natural immune response to neutralize and clear foreign bodies and damaged cells in the body (Ilich, Kelly, Kim, & Spicer, 2014). However, prolonged states of inflammation, as seen by the frequent overconsumption of foods (i.e., refined sugars, processed foods, grain fed meats) rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (a pro-inflammatory fatty acid)…