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Tests / Biomarkers

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and Gut Function

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a thyroid disease whereby antithyroid antibodies and T-lymphocytes (part of the adaptive immune response) infiltrate and destroy cell components of the thyroid gland.1 Eventually, the thyroid gland loses its capacity to produce sufficient amounts of hormones necessary for normal function; an inevitable process which leads to hypothyroidism.1(661-662) As a means of…

B12: Exploring Function, Deficiency, and Toxicity

The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is common within the elderly population; between 10-40% of individuals in advanced age are diagnosed with inadequate levels of said micronutrient.1 As such, it is imperative to restore B12 levels back to optimal ranges. However, inappropriate consumption of B12 can induce deficiency or potential toxicity. As a means of appreciating…

The Elderly, Surgery, and Nutrition

Optimizing nutrition can help support the recovery of traumatized bone and soft tissue. Such a decision is particularly relevant for older individuals who have sustained fractures or hip replacements; events which create significant tissue damage. In the following sections, this author would like to provide nutritional recommendations, from whole food and supplemental sources, which can…

Bariatric Surgery, Biomarkers, and Nutritional Considerations

Obesity is one of the most prevalent healthcare challenges, worldwide.1 Currently, Handzlik-Orlik et al1(383) stated that bariatric surgery (BS) is considered one of the most effective methods of achieving long-term weight loss, particularly when all other medical interventions have failed. However, BS is associated with complications to include micronutrient deficiencies.1(383) As such, it is essential…

Osteoporosis, Biomarkers, and Nutrition

Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by elevated bone turnover and compromised bone strength, which increases an individual’s risk of fracture.1 Furthermore, 44 million Americans are estimated to have low bone mass which, in 2001, had a direct national expenditure of 17 billion dollars.1(1015) Ultimately, early monitoring and tracking of bone mineral density (BMD), and other…

Gut Health, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and the Four R Program

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, which effects the connective tissues of the body with a particular locus about the joints.1 RA is characterized as a chronic, disabling, and deforming condition affecting multiple joints, especially along the hands and feet.1(731) The onset of RA is known to be driven by environmental and genetic…

Crohn’s Disease, Biomarkers, and the Four R Program

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a condition characterized by chronic and inflammatory episodes, which can affect any section of the digestive tract.1 Furthermore, 30-65% of CD patients exhibit a secondary condition known as intestinal permeability (IP); a pathophysiological aberration in tight junction (TJ) integrity.1(1000) TJs represent the space between intestinal cells (enterocytes) that, in normal and…

Chronic Diarrhea (IBS-D) and the Four R Program

Chronic diarrhea is also known as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with a predominant symptom of diarrhea (IBS-D). IBS-D is characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea and abdominal discomfort. The pathogenesis may be linked to factors such as visceral hypersensitivity, brain-intestine axis disorders, intestinal flora alternations, and intestinal motility abnormalities.1(888) In the following sections, this author will…

IBS, Biomarkers, and the Four R Program

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequently diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder accounting for an excess of 2 million family physician visits in 2002 within the United States.1 Furthermore, IBS is a multifactorial and complex disorder often characterized by abdominal pain, discomfort, altered bowel habits, as well as bloating and gas.1(261) The pathophysiology of IBS can include…

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Glutamine

In this author’s latest posts, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was explored with a particular focus upon nutritional support (i.e., removal of triggering foods) to manage said condition in addition to use of digestive enzymes when and where indicated. In the following sections, this author would like to explore other nutritional themes that might be efficacious…