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Cardiovascular / Circulatory

Sweating, Heavy Metals, and Hypertension

Heavy metal exposure from the environment, food, and water is considered a nearly unavoidable occurrence; a process that slowly develops and worsens over a lifetime.1 Metals such as mercury, lead, arsenic, and cadmium have been identified within individuals, of which there is no known biological benefit. Of particular note; said elements are likely progenitors of…

Sleep Duration and Health

Sleep is a vital, yet greatly overlooked, component to health. In many industrialized societies, there is a trend towards less hours of sleep per night (Gallicchio & Kalesan, 2009). Losses in sleep of seven hours or less are attributed to factors such as longer work schedules, and greater time associated with leisure activities (Gallicchio &…

Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a term that identifies an aggregate of physiological abnormalities which increases the risk of liver disease, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (Agyemang-Yeboah, Eghan, Annani-Akollor, Togbe, Donkor, & Afranie, 2019). Physiological abnormalities that constitute MS include dysregulated glucose metabolism, high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, and abnormal lipid profiles (Agyemang-Yeboah et…

Saunas, Sweating, and Detoxification

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a condition accounting for 30% of all cause mortality and 10% disability worldwide (Zhang & Chang, 2019). Underlying causes of CVD can include congenital abnormalities, infectious agents, nutritional, and environmental factors (Reisner & Reisner, 2017; Sears, Kerr, & Bray, 2012). As such, interventions to manage said factors are paramount in maintaining…

Environmental Pollutants, Sweating, and Detoxification

Sears, Kerr, and Bray (2012) indicated that several elements exist in the environment that provide no known benefit, physiologically. Such elements include arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) (Sears et al., 2012). However, said elements have the capacity to bioaccumulate in the body producing aberrations in multiple regions to include the cardiovascular,…

Low-Density Lipoproteins and Cardiovascular Risk

Atherosclerosis can be defined as the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls (plaque), which can restrict blood flow (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Said condition can manifest as early as childhood with the development and deposition of fatty cholesterol streaks along the endothelium (blood vessel wall) (Lee & Nieman, 2013)….

Food, Sleep, and Low Grade Chronic Inflammation

Modern Western diets, including macronutrient ratios and macronutrient quality, are substantially different than the hominin diets 10,000 years ago (Ilich, Kelly, Kim, & Spicer, 2014). Modern diets tend to include over 70% of total energy from refined sugars, refined vegetable oils, processed foods, and alcohol (Ilich et al., 2014). Of particular interest is the shift…

Pathophysiology of Coronary Heart Disease

Pathophysiology helps us understand the pathology and physiology behind diseased and disordered systems of the body. In my last post, I covered roles of the cardiovascular system and the diseased states that occurred within it. Now, I would like to cover the pathophysiology behind these diseased states, as a precursor to anticipate, treat and prevent…

Cardiovascular Disease

The cardiovascular system serves many important functions, and supports every other physiological system. The more positive adaptation the cardiovascular system experiences, the more proficient it can fulfill its roles. Conversely, a diseased cardiovascular system will hinder all other physiological processes. I would like to briefly review the functions of the cardiovascular system, look deeper into…

Metabolic Syndrome and Lifestyle Interventions

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition defined by a constellation of associated risk factors that increase a person’s chances of contracting stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes (Chen, Yen, Huang, Lee, Hsia, & Lin, 2012). MS affects 35.1% men and 32.6% women in the United States, and associated risk factors include high levels of blood…