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Muscular

The Elderly, Surgery, and Nutrition

Optimizing nutrition can help support the recovery of traumatized bone and soft tissue. Such a decision is particularly relevant for older individuals who have sustained fractures or hip replacements; events which create significant tissue damage. In the following sections, this author would like to provide nutritional recommendations, from whole food and supplemental sources, which can…

Defining Processed Foods

In Canada, the fifth highest ranking country for obesity, 1 in 4 adults are now obese; a ratio that constitutes 25% of the population, and one that has doubled since 1978.1,2Such an epidemic and condition is also a known risk factor for some cancers, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes.2(331)Thus, considering causes of obesity is…

Potassium Deficiency: Causes and Methods of Repletion

Potassium (K) is a micronutrient that is a constituent of a larger body of electrolytes which includes sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca).1Such electrolytes work as an aggregate to facilitate movement of nutrients in a cell, pH balance, nerve conduction, and fluid balance.1 Although K deficiencies can emanate from sweating, imbalances with…

Magnesium and Neuromuscular Function

Magnesium (Mg) is a mineral found among a group of electrolytes to include potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), and phosphorus (P) (Maday, 2013). As an aggregate, electrolytes play a central role in balancing fluids, pH, transportation of nutrients and metabolites within the cell, and nerve conduction (Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, 2018). Considering…

Vitamin K2 Function

Vitamin K, a fat-soluble micronutrient, is found naturally in two forms to include phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2) (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Said vitamin is widely recognized for its role in the synthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA); a residue necessary for blood clotting (Gropper et al., 2018). However, a lesser known function of vitamin…

Medications and B7 Deficiency

Biotin, also known as B7, is a water-soluble vitamin contributing biochemically as a coenzyme carrier responsible for nutrient metabolism and energy production (Gropper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). B7 also facilitates gene expression via biotinylation of histone proteins (such proteins “wrap” around DNA base pairs) whereby said micronutrient exposes or “unwraps” DNA to facilitate expression of…

Neuromuscular Dysregulation and Micronutrient Deficiencies

The human body communicates, interacts, and coordinates with itself and the external environment through a dense network of electrochemical conduits, colloquially known as the nerves or nervous system (NS) (Kenney, Wilmore, & Costill, 2012). Virtually all tissues, organs, motor, and sensory systems are fully integrated with the NS; like a conductor in an orchestra, the…

The Elderly: Optimal Protein Sources and Consumption

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) does affect the elderly population. The loss of skeletal muscle mass from inactivity and lack of food consumption can negatively affect performance and activities of daily living in said population (Lancha, Zanella, Tanabe, Andriamihaja, & Blachier, 2017). Furthermore, the loss of skeletal muscle can begin as early as the 4th decade of…

Assessing Health Through Protein Status

In my last post, anthropometric assessments (body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold measurements, and bioelectrical impedance) were considered as a means of exploring an individual’s nutritional and health status. Although such measures are considered useful, biochemical tests provide another layer of screening designed to provide deeper objective and quantitative findings. Such biomarkers, in conjunction with…

Environmental Conditions, Hydration, and Fluid Content

In my previous post, I outlined how hot and humid climates increase the rate of dehydration during exercise, as well as at rest. Although replenishment and maintenance of fluid balance is integral in maintaining homeostasis, content of fluids are of equal importance. During moderate to intense exercise, carbohydrates become a primary contributor to energy production…