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Urinary

Hyperparathyroidism, Kidney Stones, and Early Detection

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common aberration in endocrine function, which negatively impacts calcium homeostasis.1 Due to its commonality, approximately 20-30 new cases, per year, are identified for every 100,000 people in the United States.1(564) Furthermore, PHPT is the leading cause of chronic hypercalcemia and has long term negative effects upon bone, cardiovascular, kidney health,…

Environmental Pollutants, Sweating, and Detoxification

Sears, Kerr, and Bray (2012) indicated that several elements exist in the environment that provide no known benefit, physiologically. Such elements include arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) (Sears et al., 2012). However, said elements have the capacity to bioaccumulate in the body producing aberrations in multiple regions to include the cardiovascular,…