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Cardiovascular / Circulatory

B12: Exploring Function, Deficiency, and Toxicity

The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is common within the elderly population; between 10-40% of individuals in advanced age are diagnosed with inadequate levels of said micronutrient.1 As such, it is imperative to restore B12 levels back to optimal ranges. However, inappropriate consumption of B12 can induce deficiency or potential toxicity. As a means of appreciating…

Anti-Hypertensive Drugs and Nutrient Interactions

Arterial hypertension (AH) is considered the predominant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and is defined as a resting systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mmHg in adults.1 According to Lopes et al,1(65) the number of individuals with hypertension has increased in a precipitous fashion since 1980, worldwide. Considering…

Metabolic Syndrome, Biomarkers, and Nutritional Interventions

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition defined as a constellation of risk factors which induce other disease states such as stroke, cardiovascular heart disease (CVD), and diabetes.1 Said biomarkers/risk factors include high blood pressure, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, and elevated fasting triglycerides.2,3 Therefore, proper…

Vitamin D and Essential Hypertension

Vitamin D (VD) is a micronutrient often associated with bone metabolism and bone disease such as osteoporosis. However, VD has been shown to influence both the structure and function of other organ systems, to include the cardiovascular system.1 Such a submission is supported by observational data indicating lower cardiovascular mortality rates amongst individuals during summer…

Blood Panels and Cardiovascular Disease

The following will consider blood panels with high total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), high lipoprotein (a), high free androgen index, high gamma tocopherol, high calcium, low zinc, low beta-carotene, and high trans fatty acids. As a means of appreciating said markers, associated cardiovascular health consequences, and solutions to optimize said markers, the following will…

Blood Chemistry Panels and Cardiovascular Heart Disease

Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a high ratio of total cholesterol/HDL, high alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and a high hemoglobin A1C are common markers on blood chemistry panels. However, left unmanaged, such markers can manifest into conditions unfavorable to health such as cardiovascular heart disease. As a means of appreciating blood…

Low-Density Lipoproteins, Apolipoprotein B, and Low Carbohydrate Diets

High concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), particles that transport and deposit cholesterol as well as phospholipids and proteins, have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).1 In particular, LDLs which contain apolipoprotein B (apoB) as part of their cell structure, are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis.1(9.6) Thus, it is imperative to…

Ischemic Heart Disease, Blood Panels, and Dietary Interventions

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, making it a considerable global health problem with far reaching consequences in terms of morbidity, and mortality and healthcare costs. However, cardiovascular health can be assessed via analysis of blood biomarkers to include (but not limited to) total cholesterol, homocysteine, alkaline phosphatase, and high-density…

Hypertension, Cardiovascular Disease, and Blood Chemistry Biomarkers

Blood biomarkers such as high triglycerides, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratios, high ferritin, high homocysteine, and low alpha-tocopherol levels have been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) states. Furthermore, such blood markers are also quite common within blood chemistry panels. As a means of appreciating said markers and their relationship to high…

Anemia, Hypochlorhydria, and Iron Absorption

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is approximately 7 m long with a 300 meter2 surface area.1 Such an organ functions as a gatekeeper defending against pathogenic organisms while concomitantly allowing for the breakdown, absorption, and passage of nutrients.1(2.3) Thus, physiological aberrations in the GIT can, and do, compromise the individual’s health and homeostasis. To appreciate the…