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Riboflavin (B2) and Probiotics

B2, also known as riboflavin, is a water-soluble vitamin responsible for multiple roles to include management of xenobiotic substances,metabolism of drugs, redox balance, controlling reactivelipid metabolism, and participation in energy metabolism (Pinto & Zempleni, 2016). As such, optimal B2 levels are essential in maintaining health and homeostasis. Although consumption of B2 through foods such as…

Thiamine Status and Popular Diets

Humans have survived in unique and diverse environments, to include equally unique and diverse foods and dietary habits. However, it is also true that particular nutritional proclivities have the potential to induce unfavorable physiological consequences that inhibit optimal health and longevity. In the following sections, I would like to explore vegan/vegetarian diets, strengths, limitations, and…

Niacin Deficiency

Niacin, colloquially known as B3, was discovered via signs and symptoms of its deficiency; a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra was a prominent condition in the United States prior to the discovery of B3(Grooper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). As a means of appreciating niacin and its relationship to pellagra, the following will explore the same,…

Vitamin C and Alzheimer’s Disease

Ascorbic acid (AA) is widely known as an antioxidant and an immune system-enhancing micronutrient. However, AA has other relevant roles to include halting telomere attrition, cell growth, disorganization of chromatin (“packages” and protects DNA in tight bundles), excessive release of inflammatory factors, in addition to prolonging lifespan (Monacelli, Acquarone, Giannotti, Borghi, & Nencioni, 2017). Such…

Food Preparation, Processing, and Vitamin C Bioavailability

It is generally understood that regular intake of phytochemical-dense foods provides anti-oxidants, among other micronutrients, which maintain health and longevity. Vitamin C (VC), a micronutrient known for its anti-oxidant and immune-enhancing properties, can be found in many fruits and vegetables (Leong & Oey, 2012). However, food preparation and processing can compromise the levels ascorbate and…

Glutathione, Selenium, and Reactive Oxygen Species

It is thought that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in many disease states to include arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease (Duthie, 2003; Stockler-Pintos, Mafra, Farage, Boaventura, & Cozzolino, 2010). As such, maintaining optimal levels of anti-oxidants are critical in managing the destructive nature of ROS. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) is an example…

Antioxidants

Antioxidants are substrates, which serve to protect a cell’s DNA, lipid membranes, and proteins from reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Duthie, 2003). As such, optimal levels of antioxidants are paramount in maintaining an organism’s health, performance, and longevity. Furthermore, ensuring that said substrate is adequately recycled for continued use is equal relevance (Grooper, Smith, & Carr,…

CoQ10, Genetic Mutations, and Statins

CoQ10 is a nutrient whose production tends to become down-regulated by two main sources: genetic mutations involved in its synthesis (a primary deficiency) and statins, which inhibit an enzyme (hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A) involved in the development of CoQ10 (considered a secondary deficiency) (Potgieter, Pretorius, & Pepper, 2013). Secondary deficiency is a common side-affect amongst individuals on…

Exercise and “Hitting the Wall”

Movement is the product of many systems working together in a highly coordinated and harmonious fashion. Such systems include the sensorimotor, musculoskeletal, and energy systems (Page, Lardner, & Frank, 2010). When functioning optimally, the coalescence of such systems can produce meaningful and effective motions, such as running. Over time, however, fatigue is expressed as a…

Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D3

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease characterized by inflammatory, demyelinating, and autoimmune events affecting more than 2 million people worldwide (Reich, Lucchinetti, & Calabresi, 2018).Brum, Comini-Frota, Vasconcelos, and Dias-Tosta (2014) stated that although the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been clearly uncovered, there does exist environmental and genetic factors thought to manifest the…

Determining Optimal Vitamin D3 Levels

Optimal vitamin D levels, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D, remains to be somewhat equivocal, thereby affecting recommended oral doses of vitamin D3. Since research indicates the critical relationship of vitamin D to optimal health, it behooves one to consider the nuances and implications of recommending supplemental vitamin D to individuals. The following will explore the…

Vitamin D3 Production

Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, is the precursor/pre-vitamin to 1,25-(OH)2D; the active form within the body, known as calcitriol (Chaplin & Jablonski, 2013). Vitamin D3 can be derived from sun exposure as well as foods such as fatty fish (i.e., salmon and sardines), plants (i.e., shitake mushrooms), fortified foods (i.e., milk, yogurt, butter, cheese)…

Dynamic Pattern Theory and Post-Rehabilitation

Post-rehabilitation (PR) clients require diligent and scrupulous program design. Extensive weakness and deconditioning are common traits among the aforementioned populace. PR clients are often seeing a medical professional, or have been recently discharged. Their injuries are usually resolved, but they are often not ready for the rigors of daily activity or work related tasks. Thus,…

Vitamin A Deficiency

In less developed countries, vitamin A deficiency (in conjunction to protein, iron, and iodine deficiency) are the leading causes of child deaths worldwide (Vijayaraghavan, 2000). Early signs of said deficiency can express itself as xerophthalmia (dryness of eyes), nyctalopia (night blindness), and dry skin (Grooper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Although such signs can prompt one…

Crohn’s Disease and Vitamin A

CD is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation, followed by periodic intervals of remission (Soares-Mota et al., 2015). Part of controlling said inflammation is through lowering the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along the gastrointestinal tract. Such a process is known to reduce tissue damage associated with CD. Furthermore, as part of a complex of…

Vitamin E and Oxidation

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble compound along with A, D, and K. Said vitamin is most widely recognized by its anti-oxidant capabilities and capacity to maintain and protect cell membranes and lipoproteins (Grooper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). As a means of appreciating vitamin E’s role as an anti-oxidant, the following will briefly consider its structure,…

Vitamin D3 and Inflammation

Vitamin D3 has been widely recognized as a key player in controlling metabolic bone disease. Less known to the public is said vitamin’s role in anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating capabilities (Raman, Milestone, Walters, Hart, & Ghosh, 2011). Interestingly, many tissues and cells, to include the immune system, contain vitamin D receptors (VDRs), indicating a need for its…

Antacids and Gut Function

McRorie (2018) stated that antacids can provide an expeditious increase in stomach pH. However, such a change comes at a consequence; the reduction of stomach acidity stimulates a rapid increase in the same (McRorie, 2018). Ultimately, the intervention that causes the relief is also the impetus behind further gastric acid production, leading the individual into…

Immune Function and Gut Microbiota

The digestive tract is an estimated 16-foot long system, which includes the upper digestive tract (oral cavity, esophagus, stomach) in addition to the lower digestive tract (small and large intestine) and accessory organs (pancreas, liver, gallbladder) (Grooper, Smith, & Carr, 2018). Residing within the lower digestive tract is a complex system of bacteria, fungi, viruses,…

Tracking Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by compromised bone strength and elevated bone turnover, which increases an individual’s risk of fracture (Srivastava et al., 2005). Almost 44 million Americans are estimated to have low bone mass which, in 2001, had a direct national expenditure of 17 billion dollars (Srivastava et al., 2005). As such, methods of…

Hemochromatosis, Supplementation, and a Tale of Caution

Micronutrient supplementation falls within an industry that generates substantial sums of revenue; Dagerman (2012) noted that in 2009, the aforementioned industry generated 26.7 billion dollars with 1,000 new supplements entering the consumer market yearly, and more than 29,000 supplements available for purchase in total. With such an array of choices, and a lack of quality…

Kinesiology Employment Opportunity

    Kinesiology Employment Opportunity (Part-Time)   Seeking a Kinesiology graduate to work in a dynamic, challenging, and rewarding environment with McIsaac Health Systems Inc (MHS). MHS is a company specializing in post-rehabilitation, personal training, and nutritional coaching. See McIsaacHealthSystems.com  for more details about our philosophy, services, and opportunities. You will be provided with abundant…

Measuring Folic Acid

Organic acid testing can help detect and facilitate stalled healing and general health problems. Furthermore, such tests help determine if vitamins are functioning adequately within the body (Rogers, 2006). Folic acid, a synthetic version of folate, can be monitored for its effectiveness by an organic acid known as formiminoglutamate (FIGLU). The following will explore the…

Folic Acid

Folic acid (also known as B9), is a water-soluble synthetic vitamin; a counterpart of the naturally occurring form (known as folate) found in leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, meat, and poultry (Lee & Chan, 2011; Tomita, 2016). Such a vitamin is key for the normal functioning of red blood cells (RBCs), the adequate synthesis of…

Krill Oil Vs Fish Oil

In recent posts, I have covered omega-3 oils and their benefits. In recent years, a particular form of omega-3 (krill oil) has been researched and promoted for its particular health benefits. Such benefits include reduced hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and arthritis (Kwantes & Grundmann, 2015). As such, the following will consider krill oil, its safety, and comparative…

Vitamin D: Types, Utility, Screening, and Optimal Dosing

Vitamin D is a micronutrient that has been associated with significantly reducing all-cause mortality, and has been implicated in many diseases of modern civilization (Cannell, 2008). Furthermore, and most relevantly, vitamin D interacts with more that 200 genes and multiple organs, indicating its broad reach and influence upon human physiology (Cannell & Hollis, 2008; Wang,…

Thyroid Hormone Regulation and Health

Metabolic processes, in addition to normal growth and development, are heavily influenced by the endocrine system; a group of organs, which release hormones directly into the bloodstream (Reisner & Reisner, 2017). Such endocrine glands include the pituitary, adrenal cortex, medulla, pancreas, kidneys, parathyroid, and thyroid. Aberrations in the performance and function of said glands can…

Detoxification, Organic Acid Testing, and Glucarate

In recent posts, I have explored methods to improve individuals’ health through movement and nutrition protocols. Although such approaches are highly valuable, they do not account for another dimension known to affect homeostasis; environmental exposures (EE). Once toxins enter the body, it is essential that they are eliminated as they can create aberrations in health…

Metabolic Syndrome, Low-Density Lipoproteins, and Fish Oil

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition defined by a constellation of associated risk factors that increase a person’s chances of contracting stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes (Chen, Yen, Huang, Lee, Hsia, & Lin, 2012). Said risk factors include: abdominal obesity (waist circumference 102 cm for males, 88cm for females), impaired fasting glucose (≥6.1 mmol/L),…

Low-Density Lipoproteins and Cardiovascular Risk

Atherosclerosis can be defined as the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls (plaque), which can restrict blood flow (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Said condition can manifest as early as childhood with the development and deposition of fatty cholesterol streaks along the endothelium (blood vessel wall) (Lee & Nieman, 2013).As…

Hyperinsulinemia, Pre-Diabetes, and Early Detection

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a general term used to describe a group of diseases characterized by an aberration in insulin secretion and/or cellular resistance to said hormone. Such discordance between insulin and the cell can drive elevated plasma glucose levels, inhibit proper metabolism of carbohydrates/fats, induce pathologic changes in nerves/small blood vessels, and aggravate atherosclerosis…

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Exploring the Relationship

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects between 11% and 14% of the population characterized by altered gut motility (constipation/diarrhea), visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal brain-gut interaction, autonomic dysfunction, and immune activation (Lin, 2004). Although a diverse range of symptoms exist, 92% of said population exhibit bloating (Lin, 2004). Researchers have postulated that in order for bloating to occur,…

Benefits of Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets

Americans consume approximately 55% of daily calories from carbohydrates that can include refined sources and simple sugars (Abbasi, 2018). Very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) can be defined as 20-50 grams of carbohydrates per day with, or without, the presence of ketosis (Feinman et al., 2015). Said dietary approaches have been explored, in addition to…

The Elderly: Optimal Protein Sources and Consumption

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) does affect the elderly population. The loss of skeletal muscle mass from inactivity and lack of food consumption can negatively affect performance and activities of daily living in said population (Lancha, Zanella, Tanabe, Andriamihaja, & Blachier, 2017). Furthermore, the loss of skeletal muscle can begin as early as the 4th decade of…

Assessing Health Through Protein Status

In my last post, anthropometric assessments (body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold measurements, and bioelectrical impedance) were considered as a means of exploring an individual’s nutritional and health status. Although such measures are considered useful, biochemical tests provide another layer of screening designed to provide deeper objective and quantitative findings. Such biomarkers, in conjunction with…

MyFitnessPal Diet Analysis; Strengths and Limitations

Modern Western diets have experienced a drastic change compared to civilizations of 10,000 years ago (Ilich, Kelly, Kim, & Spicer, 2014). Today, approximately 70% of total energy emanates from refined vegetable oils, processed foods, sugars, and alcohol (Ilich et al., 2014). Such an aberration in nutrition quality over a relatively short period in human history…

Crohn’s Disease, Vitamin D, and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

Research has indicated that individuals with Crohn’s disease (CD) can benefit from vitamin D3 supplementation (Carvalho et al., 2013). However, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can blunt the anti-inflammatory properties of said vitamin. Such phenotypic variability makes one question the efficacy of recommending vitamin D3 supplementation without first considering potential roadblocks to absorption and utilization. The…

Hiring a Personal Trainer

What are the qualities that employers look for when recruiting and hiring a personal trainer? Thus far, I have presented information outlining continuing education, considered a vital component of a personal trainer’s resume. In the following sections, I would like to consider an “outside” point of view from an employer’s perspective; to explore and consider…

Where Does Kinesiology Fit?

Where does Kinesiology fit? I remember a powerful article I read by Ives and Knudson (2007), indicating what they considered important components to a well-rounded academic program in exercise science. They argued, persuasively, that a good program was composed of several sub-disciplines (i.e., exercise physiology, biomechanics, functional anatomy, motor learning). The point that resonated, and…

A Case For Continuing Education

Undergraduate degrees generally provide foundational knowledge that students build upon by experience and discovery of new information. In the following sections, I would like to explore why mandated continuing education (CE) is a viable option by considering the work of Landers, McWhorter, Krum, and Glovinsky (2005). Landers et al. (2005) noted their study that indicated…